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Edward Plantegent III, King of England

Edward Plantegent III, King of England

Male 1312 - 1377  (64 years)

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  • Name Edward Plantegent III, King of England 
    Born 13 Nov 1312  Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Occupation King of England From 1327 To 1377 England 
    Died 21 Jun 1377  Richmond, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried 21 Jun 1377  Westminister Abbey. London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I25521  Lucius
    Last Modified 2 May 2004 

    Father Edward Plantagent II, King of England,   b. 25 Apr 1284, Caernarvon, Caernervonshire, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 21 Sep 1327, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 43 years) 
    Mother Isabella, Princess of France,   b. 1292, Paris, Seine, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 22 Aug 1358, Hertford Castle, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 66 years) 
    Married 25 Jan 1307  Boulogne, Pas-de-Calais, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F10066  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Philippa de Hainault, Countess of Hainault & Holland,   b. 24 Jan 1331, Mons, Hainault, Belgium Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 18 Aug 1369, Windsor Castle, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 38 years) 
    Married 24 Jan 1329  York, Yorkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
     1. Edward, the Black Prince,   b. 15 Jun 1330, Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire ,England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 8 Jun 1376, Westminster on Trinity Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 45 years)
     2. John Plantagent, Duck of Lancaster,   b. Mar 1339, Ghent, Flandre-Orientale, Belgium Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 3 Feb 1398, Leicester, Leicestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 58 years)
     3. John of Gaunt, Duke of Lanceaster,   b. 24 Jun 1340, Ghent, Flanders (now Belgium) Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 3 Feb 1399, Windsor Castle, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 58 years)
     4. Edmund of Langley, Duke of York,   d. 1402
     5. Isabella
     6. William,   d. Died young Find all individuals with events at this location
     7. Lionel of Antwerp , Duke of Clarence
     8. Duke Ernest Augustus of Brunswick,   b. 1629,   d. 1698  (Age 69 years)
    Family ID F10065  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Notes 
    • Edward III (1312-77), king of England (1327-77), who initiated the long, drawn-out struggle with France called the Hundred Years' War.

      Edward was born at Windsor on November 13, 1312, the elder son of King Edward II, of the house of Plantagenet. Involved by his mother, Isabella of France, in her intrigues against his father, he was proclaimed king after the latter was forced to abdicate in 1327. During Edward's minority, England was nominally ruled by a council of regency, but the actual power was in the hands of Isabella and her paramour, Roger de Mortimer. In 1330, however, the young king staged a palace coup and took the power into his own hands. His first step in asserting his rule, was to judicially murder Mortimer, his mother's lover, by plucking him out of his mother's bed, and then have him hanged through the Act of Attainder, and confining Isabella for the rest of her life to her home.

      Edward began a series of wars almost directly after he had control of England. Taking advantage of civil war in Scotland in 1333, he invaded the country, defeated the Scots at Halidon Hill, England, and restored Edward de Baliol to the throne of Scotland. Baliol, however, was soon deposed, and later attempts by Edward to establish him permanently as king of Scotland were unsuccessful. In 1337 France came to the aid of Scotland. This action was the culminating point in a series of disagreements between France and England, and Edward declared war on Philip VI of France. In 1340 the English fleet destroyed a larger French fleet off Sluis, the Netherlands. The action resulted in a truce that, although occasionally disturbed, lasted for six years. This was the beginning of the Hundred Years War (it actually lasted 115 years until 1453).

      War broke out again in 1346. Edward, accompanied by his eldest son, Edward the Black Prince, invaded Normandy and won a great victory over France in the Battle of Crâecy. He captured Calais in 1347, and a truce was reestablished. Edward returned to England, where he maintained one of the most magnificent courts in Europe. The war with France was renewed in 1355, and again the English armies were successful. The Peace of Calais, in 1360, gave England all of Aquitaine, and Edward in return renounced his claim, first made in 1328, to the French throne.

      Edward continued to assert his will both domestically and abroad. In 1363 he concluded an agreement with his brother-in-law, David II of Scotland, uniting the two kingdoms in the event of David's death without male issue. Three years later Edward repudiated the papacy's feudal supremacy over England, held in fief since 1213. He renewed his war with France, disavowing the Peace of Calais. Edward decided to claim the throne of France. This time, however, the English armies were unsuccessful. After the truce of 1375, Edward retained few of his previously vast possessions in France. The king had, by this time, become senile. He was completely in the power of an avaricious mistress, Alice Perrers, who, along with his fourth son, John of Gaunt, dominated England. Perrers was banished by Parliament in 1376, and Edward himself died at Sheen (now Richmond) on June 21, 1377. He was succeeded by his grandson, Richard II.

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